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Mary AinsworthBiography

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  • mary ainsworth
  • attachment styles
  • developmental psychology

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Mary Ainsworth was born December 1913.


Mary Ainsworth died in 1999.

Early Life:

Mary Ainsworth was born in Glendale Ohio. When she was 15, she read William McDougall's book Character and the Conduct of Life, which inspired her lifelong interest in psychology (O'Connell, 1983). She went on to attend the University of Toronto in the honors psychology program. After earning her B.A. in 1935, her M.A. in 1936 and her Ph.D. in 1939, she spent several years teaching at the University of Toronto before joining the Canadian Women's Army Corp in 1942.1

In 1950, she married Leonard Ainsworth and moved to London. After returning to the U.S., Ainsworth took a position at John Hopkins University. She divorced in 1960, and underwent therapy that contributed to her interest in psychoanalytic theory.2 She began teaching at the University of Virginia and remained at the school for the remainder of her career.


During her time in England, Ainsworth worked at the Tavistock Clinic with psychologist John Bowlby, where she researched maternal-infant attachments. After leaving this position, she spent time conducting research on mother-child interactions in Uganda.3

After returning to the U.S. to teach at John Hopkins, she began working on creating an assessment to measure attachments between mothers and children. It was here that she developed her famous "Strange Situation" assessment, in which a researcher observes a child's reactions when a mother briefly leaves her child alone in an unfamiliar room. The way the child behaves during the separation and upon the mother's return can reveal important information about attachment.

Based on her observations and research, Ainsworth concluded that there were three main styles of attachment: secure, anxious-avoidant and anxious-resistant. Since these initial finding, her work has spawned countless studies into the nature of attachment and the different attachment styles that exist between children and caregivers.

Contributions to Psychology:

Mary Ainsworth's work research on attachment has played an important role in our understanding of child development. While her work is not without its own controversies, such the extent to which early attachment styles contribute to later behavior, her observations have inspired an enormous body of research on the early childhood attachment.

Selected Publications:

Ainsworth, M. and Bowlby, J. (1965). Child Care and the Growth of Love. London: Penguin Books.

Ainsworth, M. Infancy in Uganda: Infant Care and the Growth of Love. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1967.

Ainsworth, M., M. C. Blehar, E. Waters, and S. Wall. Patterns of Attachment: A Psychological Study of the Strange Situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1978.


1O'Connell, A.N., & Rusoo, N.F. (1983). Models of achievement: Reflections of eminent women in psychology. New York: Columbia University Press.

2Biography: Mary D. Salter Ainsworth. (2002). The McGraw-Hill Companies. Found online at http://www.dushkin.com/connectext/psy/ch03/ainsworth.mhtml

3Arcus, D. (1998). Ainsworth, Mary (1913- . Gale Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence. Found online at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2699/is_0003/ai_2699000364

Mary Ainsworth: Work and Theories
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