Karen Horney was a prominent psychoanalyst best-known for her theories of neurosis
, feminine psychology, and self psychology. While Horney was a neo-Freudian, she also challenged many of Sigmund Freud's theories about female psychology. For example, Horney countered Freud's assertion that women experience "penis envy" by suggesting that men feel "womb envy" because they are unable to bear children.
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Clark Hull was a major figure in behaviorism. His ideas, including his drive reduction theory, were once dominant forces in psychology prior to the cognitive revolution of the 1960s.
Austrian psychoanalyst Melanie Klein is perhaps best known for developing the technique known as play therapy, which is still used widely today.
Psychologist and philosopher William James is often referred to as the father of American psychology. His 1200-page text, The Principles of Psychology
, became a classic on the subject and his teachings and writings helped establish psychology as a science. James also contributed to functionalism
, pragmatism and influenced many students of psychology during his 35-year teaching career.
Carl Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist who founded the school of thought known as analytical psychology. He is known for his concepts of archetypes
and the collective unconscious.
Psychologist Kurt Lewin is often referred to as the father of modern social psychology. His pioneering theories argued that behavior is caused by both personal characteristics and the environment. Lewin's emphasis on scientific methodology and systematic study had an enormous impact on future research in social psychology. He is also well-known for his styles of leadership
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Hugo Munsterberg was a German psychologist who is known for his contributions to applied psychology. Despite the fact that his work still has an influence on many areas of modern psychology, his legacy was largely forgotten for many years. Learn more about Hugo Munsterberg's life, career and theories in this brief biography.
Ivan Pavlov was a Russian physiologist whose research on conditioned reflexes influenced the rise of behaviorism. Pavlov's experimental methods helped move psychology away from introspection and subjective assessments to objective measurement of behavior. While he was not technically a "psychologist," his contributions to the field of psychology and his discovery of classical conditioning make him one of psychology's greatest pioneers.
Jean Piaget was a psychologist best-known for his stage theory of cognitive development
. He was one of the first thinkers to suggest that children think differently than adults, a concept that was considered revolutionary at the time.